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How to choose the right hybrid inverter?

2023-10-17

Inverters are one of the most critical and challenging components in a self-contained energy system. There are some basic features, advantages and limitations you should know before buying a hybrid inverter.

An inverter is a power electronic changing device and the final AC frequency obtained depends on the specific device used. An inverter is the opposite of a "converter," which was originally a large electromechanical device that converted alternating current to direct current.

Input voltage, output voltage and frequency, and overall power handling depend on the design of a particular device or circuit. The inverter does not generate electricity. Power is provided by a DC power supply.

Hybrid Inverter can be entirely electronic or a combination of mechanical effects (such as rotating equipment) and electronic circuits. Static inverters use no moving parts during the conversion process.

Power inverters are mainly used in power applications where high currents and high voltages exist. A circuit that performs the same function on an electronic signal (often with very low current and voltage) is called an oscillator. A circuit that converts alternating current to direct current and performs the opposite function is called a rectifier.

Depending on the circuit design, the inverter can generate square waves, modified sine waves, pulsed sine waves, pulse width modulated waves (PWM) or sine waves. Common types of inverters produce square or quasi-square waves. One measure of sine wave purity is total harmonic distortion (THD). A square wave with a 50% duty cycle is equivalent to a sine wave with a THD of 48%. [4] Specifications for commercial distribution networks require less than 3% THD in the waveform at the point of customer connection. For systems connected to the grid, IEEE Standard 519 recommends a THD of less than 5%.

There are two basic designs for generating household plug-in voltage from a low-voltage DC supply, the first of which uses a switching boost converter to generate high-voltage DC, which is then converted to AC. The second method is to convert DC to AC at the battery level and then use a line frequency transformer to generate the output voltage.

1. Pure sine wave

Just like a standard wall outlet, a UPS inverter draws power from batteries cleanly and safely. The output of this inverter is the same as the service power, which is sinusoidal, which reduces operating noise and prolongs the life of connected equipment.

Since home appliances are run on this model, this is the best UPS inverter for home use. This system is effective and doesn't waste a lot of power if you want to use high-powered appliances like microwaves, TVs, and air coolers during a power outage.

If you need to operate multiple machines, then a pure sine wave UPS inverter is the best choice for the home because it can vary the voltage according to the power requirements. However, they can be a bit pricey.

2. Square wave

These inverters produce square waveforms. Compared to the other two, the square wave inverter is lighter and more compact than similarly rated sine wave inverters. However, if you only need to run appliances such as fans, lights, or general purpose motors, then this is the right choice. However, such inverters generate noise.

  Output frequency

The AC output frequency of a power inverter device is usually the same as the standard power line frequency, i.e. 50 or 60 Hz. The exception is motor drive designs where variable frequency results in variable speed control.

Likewise, if the output of a device or circuit is to be further regulated (such as increasing power), the frequency may be higher to achieve good transformer efficiency.

3. Output voltage

The AC output voltage of a power inverter is usually regulated to be the same as the grid line voltage, typically 120 or 240 VAC at the distribution level, even if the load the inverter is driving changes. This allows the inverter to power a wide variety of devices designed for standard line power.

Some inverters also allow selective or continuously variable output voltage.

4. Output power

Power inverters usually have an overall power rating expressed in watts or kilowatts. It describes the power available to the equipment the inverter is driving, and indirectly the power required from the DC source. Smaller consumer and commercial devices designed to simulate line power typically range from 150 to 3000 watts.

Not all inverter applications are solely or primarily concerned with power transfer; in some cases, frequency and/or waveform properties are used by subsequent circuits or equipment.

5. Battery

The runtime of a battery powered inverter depends on the battery power and the amount of power drawn from the inverter at a given time. As the number of devices using the inverter increases, the runtime will decrease. To extend the running time of the inverter, additional batteries can be added to the inverter.

How to choose an inverter

Step 1: Calculate Power Requirements

You need to define the power requirement as zero on the best inverter for home. This involves identifying devices that will be connected during a power outage, such as lights, fluorescent lights, fans, TVs, phone chargers, and Wi-Fi routers.

You need to define the power consumption of each unit to be connected to the inverter and measure the total power consumption. This will determine the amount of watt load required by the inverter. This is the first step in choosing the best UPS inverter for your home.

Step 2: Understand the necessary capacity

Under the best conditions, the total power consumption should be the same as the capacity of the inverter. However, in electrical systems, the input power is hardly sufficient. For residential use, the power factor is calculated based on the efficiency with which the input power is used and is approximately 0.7 watts.

To get the inverter power in VA, it divides the total power dissipation (watts) from step 1 by 0.7. This is the full load of the inverter if all devices are used at the same time. If the exact battery capacity is not available, please choose a battery with a higher capacity.

If you are looking for an easy way to choose the right UPS inverter, a reliable brand like SUNRISE will help you find the right one.

Step 3: Determine the battery size

After choosing the best UPS inverter, you now need to choose the right battery size for it to run optimally. The battery size is calculated in Ah.

Determine the time period when the inverter needs to provide backup. For example, if you choose a 600 VA inverter, and you want to use it for 4 hours, the suitable battery size is as follows:

600 * 4 = 2,400VAh

Since a standard inverter battery draws 12V, the battery size is 2,400 / 12 = 200Ah

If there is no exact battery capacity, please choose a battery with a larger capacity, like the inverter.

Choosing an inverter is not a difficult task. Defining where it should be used, what kind of load (equipment) it will power and the maximum power the inverter can handle will help in choosing the best UPS inverter for your needs.

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